Rodent Control BucharestIf left unchecked, sunn pest seriously reduces yield and can reduce grain quality as reflected by lowered germination rates and the poor bread-making quality of infested grain (Barbulescu, 1967; Popov, l972; Popov et al., 1982; 1983; Popov, Barbulescu and Vonica, 1992; Barbulescu et al., 1987).
Taking into account that there is a continuous search for developing new therapy targets in Ps ( 50 ) and that NK cells can be future modulatory targets ( 26 , 27 ) finding new markers that can aid the dermatologists in clinical management ( 51 - 53 ) would lead to novel cellular pattern for monitoring this auto-immune disease.
Telenomus chloropus was the dominant oophage observed on sunn pest eggs in Romania (Figure 3), comprising 80.63 percent of the total of the eight parasitoid species and 86.24 percent of all oophages currently identified in Romania (Popov et al., 1980; Fabritius et al., 1985).
Activated NK cells express gp49B receptor which displays structural homology with human killer inhibitory receptors ( 46 ). CD28, a cell surface molecule with a critical role in T cell activation is also expressed by mouse NK cells, and its triggering NK cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine secretion ( 47 ). Analysis of activation markers of NK cells (CD69, B220, CD11c, gp49R, CD28) revealed significant increased values in spleen cell suspension in IMQ-treated mice as compared to control group.
At present, 22 districts, covering a total area of 1.75 million ha, are infested by sunn pest (Table 7). The districts of Dobrogea, Wallachia, Oltenia and Moldova provide optimal habitat for E. integriceps and this is reflected in its consistently high year-to-year population density, with some noticeable variation.
A long-term study of the population dynamics of Aelia and Eurygaster species in outbreak areas, including Waramin and Isfahan in Iran, indicated that changes in population densities of these insects and outbreaks are largely determined by external abiotic and biotic factors.
There are no restrictions on socialization with the local population and many people develop lasting relationships with their Romanian friends. In the absence of these wild and original food plants, sunn pest populations feed and develop on cultivated cereals, especially wheat.
Monitoring sunn pest populations. Population densities in infested areas vary greatly and do not extend to all wheat-growing areas in the country. Fecundity and longevity of sunn pest species were much higher on grains. We have previously used this panel to characterize NK cells in another mouse model of skin cancer, namely in cutaneous melanoma bearing mice ( 38 ).
Choosing the correct oophage is the most important task to be made in each region (Voegelé, 1981).This step must take into account annual and seasonal variations in the sunn pest population as well as variation in weather (Voegelé, 1969a; 1969b). The high parasitism observed in all districts in all years, reaching nearly 100 percent, suggests that sunn pest populations can be effectively suppressed by natural enemies occurring in Romania.
Early-ripening varieties of wheat and barley should be grown in areas at risk of sunn pest outbreaks. The timing of planting and the cultivation of cereals in certain dryland areas could be restricted by ddd93 firma deratizare bucuresti growers in order to reduce sunn pest populations. According to local veterinarians, the greatest danger to domestic animals is the active rodent control program instituted by the Romanian Government.
Growers should avoid the unnecessary use of pesticides on cereals and adjacent crops in order to maintain natural enemy populations, especially those of scelionid egg parasitoids. Their high population densities, cyclic population behaviour and migratory behaviour make sunn pest comparable to migratory grasshoppers.